Laureate Professor Paul Foster, DSc (ANU), undertakes research which has transformed the way scientists understand the fundamental molecular and cellular processes that regulate allergic inflammation, and how they contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and eosinophilic disorders. These include seminal findings on how cytokines (interleukins (IL)) derived from T-helper cells contribute to allergic disease. Notably, these observations provide the platform for the pharmaceutical industry to develop new therapies for the treatment of asthma and eosinophilic disorders. This is exemplified by successful clinical trials where inhibition of IL-5 and IL-13 has improved the health of patients with severe asthma. Professor Foster continues to play a critical role in shaping new clinical approaches to the management of patients with asthma and other airway diseases.